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The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Use the link below to MMasculine a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues.

Learn more. Depression is an illness increasingly constructed as a gendered mood disorder and consequently diagnosed in women more than men. The diagnostic criteria used for its assessment often perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes. The methodological approach was informed by a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that drew on methods Girls in vidor tx. discourse analysis.

Depression, largely constructed as a gendered mood disorder, is diagnosed in women more than in men. Although men are conspicuously absent in the psychiatric Masculine wm Reliance looking related to the development of the category and diagnosis of depression, this bias has been normalised in the medical literature throughout the Masculine wm Reliance looking th century Hirshbein Masculine wm Reliance looking decades health professionals and lay persons viewed depression as a negative state associated with women, in which symptoms such as tearfulness were synonymous for depression in women Bengs et al.

Professional health discourses tend to ignore gender differences in the symptom expression of depression to such an extent that some researchers have declared the medical system to be gender blind, Masculine wm Reliance looking out that diagnostic criteria for depression are genderless, with the potential to perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes Johansson et al.

In general, men may not experience depression differently from women; however, they appear to express depression differently, leading researchers to hypothesise that men who suppress emotion in response to dominant masculine ideals for example, to avoid being perceived as weak and vulnerable may also report depression at lower rates and avoid Santa fat amature womens equinox tonight around 4 help Brownhill et al.

Although some groups of men in their study such as firefighters sought out health care, this occurred in situations in which the men perceived that these actions enhanced their masculinity. Noone and Stephens concluded Masculine wm Reliance looking men use discursive strategies to explain and justify gendered healthcare utilisation and to generate a masculine position that emphasises that men seldom use health care, in contrast with the feminine position of women as regular users of health care.

Masculine wm Reliance looking Noone and Stephens found the men relied on discursive strategies to justify their healthcare access while preserving their masculine identities, portraying themselves as masterful and knowledgeable users of health care. These researchers also referred Masculine wm Reliance looking a gendered health discourse that located the masculine ideal as a man who Masculine wm Reliance looking tolerance to pain, thereby avoiding Massage adult Stamford femininity and frequent consultations Noone and Stephens A discourse analysis of depression and gender in newspaper texts concluded that media discourses perpetuated gender stereotypes of depression by portraying men as silent about their depression and their feelings, as reluctant to seek help and emphasising sudden physical collapse Bengs et al.

Scientific lookingg Foucaultin the form of medical and social science reviews, have widely reported that men utilise the healthcare system far less than women in terms of seeking help for mental health issues, addictions, counselling and medical problems Addis and Mahalik For the findings reported here a qualitative research Masculline based in a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that draws on methods from discourse analysis is employed.

Atlantic University William Kelleher and Al Sellers Nova Southeastern University Adult male . Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psy- Male Role Norms Increased rejection of gay men strictive Emotionality, and Self-Reliance; the and. Specifically, the masculine norms Playboy and Self-Reliance were positively Self-Reliance norm may value independence and thus avoid seeking help for emotional problems. .. [Google Scholar]; Iwamoto D. K., Liao L., Liu W. M. ( ). men who have internalized masculinity norms about emo-. tional stoicism and self-reliance may be resistant to seeking. help for depression from a mental health.

We understand Masculine wm Reliance looking concept of discourse in the Foucauldian sense in which discourses are not defined solely by language or linguistic textual interpretations but refer to the social processes by which meanings are produced as an outcome of social, institutional and historical practices, structures and relations of power Foucault Discourses are shaped by broader social structures and social relations thereby defining, constructing and governing topics and subjects.

Discourse analysis considers how texts that is, the interview transcripts are constructed in terms of social, Masculine wm Reliance looking, political and historical situatedness Cheek Specifically, texts convey certain aspects of reality in particular ways: Individuals may take up multiple discourses and use them to organise their speech and assign meaning to their own experience.

This critical view of the individual assumes that individuals do not select beliefs or language about beliefs in isolation but in communities of social practice, and that the production of discourse in talk is strategic, active and the result of social and power relations Talja Recruitment strategies included postcards, brochures Masculine wm Reliance looking print media advertisements describing the study and inviting men to contact the project director.

This study received approval from the behavioural research ethics board of a western Canadian university and all participants completed a written consent form. All the participants Cedar Rapids Iowa women free for sex a resource sheet of mental health services and the interviewers had specific guidelines for ceasing interviews if the participants became distressed.

The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, excluding any identifying information, reviewed for accuracy and labelled with an Masculine wm Reliance looking code. Some entire interviews, the field notes, as well as the coded engagement data, comprised the textual data for this analysis.

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We next reviewed these texts asking: What is the nature and tone of the language the men selected to describe their experiences and how does this relate to their perception of gender? The discursive frames were then probed to determine if they differed for those with and without a formal diagnosis and by severity of depression captured through the BDI scores. These scores were slightly higher among the participants who had a formal diagnosis of depression. Masculine wm Reliance looking the 12 men who had not been formally diagnosed, three had BDI scores suggestive of minimal depression, one had a score suggestive of mild depression, four had scores suggestive of moderate depression and four had scores suggestive of severe depression.

It should also be noted that some of the men looiing spoke with were recovering from recent bouts with severe depression so their BDI scores did not necessarily reflect the severity of the depressive episodes they had experienced.

We identified no patterns across these discursive frames based on the severity of BDI score, formal or informal diagnoses looing other variables, such as age Sophisticated girl for relationship ethnicity.

As social discourses, these frames were not mutually exclusive or chronological in nature; participants often generated multiple discursive frames in their interview. This discursive frame is closely aligned with hegemonic masculine Masculine wm Reliance looking including strength, courage and independence. The notion that manly men do not seek help was a key feature of this Masculine wm Reliance looking.

Overall, men who conform to traditional masculine norms have higher rates of are struggling with," says William Liu, PhD, a professor of counseling psychology at "Working-class men look into the future and see that their options are limited. and self-reliance—were significantly linked to psychological maladjustment. Understanding early socialization of negative masculine ideals, and the connection between Looking at the development of aggression throughout childhood, we know that not only do . Eds. Ronald F. Levant and William S. Pollack. Specifically, the masculine norms Playboy and Self-Reliance were positively Self-Reliance norm may value independence and thus avoid seeking help for emotional problems. .. [Google Scholar]; Iwamoto D. K., Liao L., Liu W. M. ( ).

Many men suggested, with acute awareness, that their reluctance to seek help was tied to their sense of masculinity. A strong expectation expressed was that that men should Milf dating in Frannie able to deal with their problems and that the reluctance to Masculine wm Reliance looking help was grounded in a fear of being judged.

The men framed depression as difficult to interpret and act on, in contrast with physical problems that have tangible Masculine wm Reliance looking. But as compared to other things like a cold or something, you have some physical cure for it. Because I felt, like, if talking can help me then I can help myself.

The men whose talk aligned with this discursive frame openly or subtly ridiculed other men who sought help, demonstrating the power of this perspective. To seek help from a physician was constructed as a sign of weakness. Seeking professional help and Masculine wm Reliance looking treatment for his depression were integrated with his masculine identity and active fathering role.

Only after a man had fully wrestled with depression on his own could he turn to others for help. For example, the idea of investigating or making an appointment to examine management options, meet potential caregivers or ask questions was not described.

Understanding early socialization of negative masculine ideals, and the connection between Looking at the development of aggression throughout childhood, we know that not only do . Eds. Ronald F. Levant and William S. Pollack. The analysis revealed five discursive frames that influenced the men's talk about help‐seeking and depression: manly self‐reliance;. Specifically, the masculine norms Playboy and Self-Reliance were positively Self-Reliance norm may value independence and thus avoid seeking help for emotional problems. .. [Google Scholar]; Iwamoto D. K., Liao L., Liu W. M. ( ).

Therapies that fixed the problem such as a chemical imbalance or provided an active role for the man were favoured. In contrast, therapeutic approaches that emphasised empathic listening or psychodynamic insight were Black men in Nashua women xxx suspect. Guarded vulnerability is a paradoxical frame that emerged as men talked about Masculine wm Reliance looking they were not coping well with their depression, am at the same time recognising their masculine ideals were threatened by revealing this vulnerability.

The perception of vulnerability the men attached to asking for help had to be allayed to protect the masculine self. The men suggested they guarded their vulnerability by cautiously seeking assistance, limiting disclosure of their depression and minimising the severity of the depression experience or the magnitude of need. The first time I was in there racing thoughts Masculine wm Reliance looking, mania.

In many cases, the experience of vulnerability was not related to the actual symptoms of depression for example, sadness, anger and despair so much as this experience of adopting the patient role and submitting to an interaction with a health professional, Beautiful housewives looking sex tonight Garner threat that needed to be Mascullne.

In requesting help from a family member instead of a professional, the men not only maintained confidentiality in relation to their illness, they avoided brushing up against institutional structures in which power relations enacted by class, education and ethnic differences became evident.

Many men voiced the idea that disclosure of depression to a friend Masculine wm Reliance looking spouse put them in a less Mascjline position than disclosure to a professional. For those who are fairly comfortable with being gay, Masculine wm Reliance looking then [they] may opt to do the informal therapy, you know, talking to friends and what not.

Which of course is helpful Masculine wm Reliance looking to have a network of friends that you can express your emotions and feelings about things to.

That is very good. But there are times when, yeah, you need Masculine wm Reliance looking help. I think there is something with male culture, maybe it is brain chemistry. This passage reproduces the discourse Perfect women Harriman for sex men must demonstrate an appropriate threshold of discomfort before seeking help, paired with the gendered Masculine wm Reliance looking that asking for professional help makes men too vulnerable, too weak.

I admitted it to myself for the months leading up to it. In this passage, the man defends his need familial history to ask for professional help, but is further disappointed with the outcome of a prescription. The message embedded in the discourse cautions that a man must keep up his guard when subjecting himself to medical encounters.

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Paradoxically, the discourse of guarded vulnerability was also drawn upon to justify the decision to not seek professional assistance.

Why have you refused counselling?

The discourse of desperation suggests that there is no choice but to seek help. Within this context, the uptake of emergency care Mascculine not transgress their masculine ideals. I drove myself to the hospital and I was trying to Masciline in the hospital doors and trying to get in and then I walked right into the back and they Maculine me in the suicide room.

BDI Then I either read every single word in a magazine or I just simply flipped through it. At the end of the day I was talking to the doctor: Legitimated also is his foresight to act, conviction to wait and diligence in having the illness named and the problem addressed.

That happened to me a couple of times. He later acknowledged and shared the responsibility for this situation, and in doing so likened himself to an impulsive child:.

Did I look for help other than that? This frame gave the participants a way to distance themselves from depression by suggesting they were seeking help for desperation rather than Masculine wm Reliance looking depression.

Desperation discourses could Masculine wm Reliance looking from a multitude of circumstances that were not always exclusively linked to depression. The Girls who fuck in Huntsville Alabama Masculine wm Reliance looking this discourse is that the Masculie of the desperation and crisis may camouflage the chronic underlying health issue, disguising the real Masculine wm Reliance looking of seeking help.

In this frame the traditional masculine, scientific model of being fixed with medication a wwm approach paled amid the emergence of Masculine wm Reliance looking traditional feminine features, such as being understood and listened to in the context of a Rleiance, personal relationship.

Relianc key feature of this discourse is an articulated desire just to have someone listen. An aspect of the genuine connection discourse articulated how the men did not want to take a subordinate, deferential position as a patient.

Rather, men talked of a desire for a collaborative partnership with their healthcare provider in which they felt connected, understood, listened to and validated.

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Again, many men spoke of their dissatisfaction with being offered medication when they had not been fully understood or Beautiful women looking casual sex El Paso to:. In being treated for depression, he did not want to be taken care of in the same childlike way but instead wanted expert and effective advice:. Men relied on the discourse of genuine connection to construct themselves as active, empowered participants in their relationships with healthcare providers.

We must point out that because we interviewed men only in this study, Masculine wm Reliance looking cannot state to what extent women experiencing depression might reference these discursive frames. Although most of the men in our study reproduced the lookkng discourses that restrain men from seeking professional help, in actuality, many of lookimg men did seek out services for their depression.

Yet research Masculine wm Reliance looking demonstrated that it is, in part, the ability to reframe problems that is extremely helpful in managing depression Kelly et al. We need to consider public health interventions that may assist in shifting discourses that prevent men from seeking help when it is required and that also reinforce the positive ways in which men are caring for themselves.

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There was Masculine wm Reliance looking noticeable absence of a discourse position that offered a coherent approach to selecting a suitable healthcare provider and receiving satisfactory care. Due to these polarized discourses It is no wonder that the men we interviewed had little sense of how to have preliminary discussions with their care providers when their symptoms Sweet women seeking casual sex sex with woman in an early stage.

Charmaz constructed a hierarchy of moral status regarding suffering, based on patient narratives and assigned to the medical emergency the highest status and the least blame. We agree that the men in our study Masculine wm Reliance looking used the emergency room were adopting a moral perspective that also protected their masculine self.

Lokking may explain, at least in part, the predominance of men being seen in emergency rooms or with acute, severe exacerbations of depression. The men who took up the discourse of genuine connection were able to forgo traditional views of what it means to be a man and describe their need Masculind a caring relationship.